BIO211 Human Anatomy & Physiology II

Spring 2022

Laboratory Guide







Dates Laboratory Topic Text Chs. Lab #
January 10 Laboratory Introduction    
January 27 Endocrine System FAP 10; APL 16 1
January 24 Heart; Cardiac Physiology FAP 12; APL 17,19 2
January 31 Vascular System FAP 13; APL 18 3
February 7 Blood; Blood Chemistry FAP 11; AP 20 4
February 14 Midterm I - during lab period    
February 21 Lymphatic System; Immune System FAP 14; APL 21 5
February 28 Respiratory System FAP 15; APL 22,23 6
March 7 no lab - Spring Break    
March 14 Digestive System: Alimentary Canal FAP 16; APL 24 7
March 21 Digestive System: Glands, Control, Nutrition FAP 16,17; APL 24 8
March 28 Midterm II - during lab period    
April 4 Urinary System FAP 13; APL 25,26 9
April 18 Reproductive Systems FAP 19; APL 27 10
April 20 no lab    
April 25 Pregnancy; Development; Aging FAP 20; APL 28 11
May 2 no lab    
May 4 Reading Day - all written materials due by 5:00PM    
TBA Final Exam - Class and Laboratory    



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        The primary objectives of this course are to develop the ability to visualize the forms of body structures that are hidden beneath the surface of the living human being, to understand the major functions of these various structures, to understand how "form follows function" on gross and microscopic levels, and to allow you to explore your growing understanding of the body from any other perspective which interests you.  Such perspectives might include development, evolution, pathology, sport/exercise physiology, bioengineering, and biomechanics.




        The two most common approaches to the study of anatomy are regional and systematic.  Regional anatomy divides the body into regions, such as the head, neck, thorax, etc. and studies the spatial interrelationships of structures within each region.  Systematic anatomy recognizes that the body consists of functional systems.  The major structures (organs) within each system interact cooperatively to accomplish a common function.  The organization of this course will follow a systematic approach.


        A major emphasis of the course will be structural relationships.  This includes the microscopic structure of cells and tissues, the gross (macroscopic) structure of organs, and the spatial relationships between organs within each system, as well as within the body as a whole.   How cells, tissues, organs, and systems function will also be stressed.  As you will learn, structure and function are so intimately related that an understanding of one is not possible without an understanding of the other.  When it is appropriate to the course, additional aspects of anatomy will be presented.  These will include considerations of surface anatomy - those aspects of body structure or action which can be palpated or observed at the surface of the body, developmental anatomy - how the body changes from conception to senescence, comparative anatomy - how the structure and function of the human body compare to those of related vertebrates, and pathology - changes that occur with injury or disease.


Sources of Information


        There are several sources of information that are available to you in this course.  In order to get the most from the course, you are strongly urged to take advantage of all of these:


Class Discussions - The class discussions and demonstrations are meant to complement each other.  You should integrate material presented in discussions and demonstrations as much as possible with your own investigations, to clarify your understanding.


Laboratory Manual - The on-line laboratory manual is meant to serve as an introduction and guide to the material presented in the class.  It should provide an indication of the relative weighting of different subjects.  The material in this manual, together with the discussions and demonstrations, is the basic information content of the course.


Demonstration Materials - A variety of materials will be out on demonstration each week.  These materials are NOT simply on display.  The whole point of having this material available and labeled is for you to work with these materials, to learn anatomy from a "hands-on approach.

Required Texts – Anatomy books come in two basic flavors – texts, which describe anatomical structures, and relationships and atlases, which serve as physical guides to identifying structures.  The required texs for this course are Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 10th Ed. by Martini, Nath, and Bartholomew and Exploring Anatomy and Physiology in the Laboratory 3rd. Ed. by Amerman. 


Optional Texts and Atlases – An excellent supplementary text/atlas for gross anatomy is The Anatomy Coloring Book by Kapit and Elson.  Do not be fooled by the title, this is a simple and elegant reference atlas, and an excellent way to learn anatomy.   The idea of a coloring book may seem frivolous, but it is a painless and effective way to learn anatomical terms and spatial relationships, and is consequently one of the best selling anatomy texts in the world.  An excellent additional laboratory guide is Regional Human Anatomy by Frederick E. Grine.  You should note that as a regional anatomy text it is organized a bit differently than this systematic anatomy class and lab. The best guide to microscopic anatomy is Wheater’s Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas by Barbara Young (Ed.).


Anatomy Reference Collection – One copy of each of the above books, as well as an assortment of additional texts and atlases are available in MSC 101 on the shelves by the "back" door of the room.  These are for your use at any time, but MUST NOT BE REMOVED FROM THE ROOM.  It is especially important that you not remove any of the three books specifically listed above, as the instructor will be referring to these throughout the course.


Instructor - The instructor is a major source of information available to you.  Don't hesitate to ask him questions, either during lab periods or during office hours.


The Internet – The Internet is a great source of ideas, and a rather risky source of factual information.  Feel free to look up topics on the web, but make sure that you are getting anything that you regard as actual information from a reliable source.


Each Other - However, there is only one instructor.  Another major source of information should be the other students.  Learning anatomy well requires hands-on experience, practice, and, above all, repetition.  The more times you hear a term, or better yet say it, the more likely you will be to remember it.  Also, the best way to find out if you really understand something is to try to explain it to someone else.  So,  talk to other students during the labs, ask questions, share your ideas, etc.  You will get the most out of your lab sessions if you approach the course as a cooperative venture (excluding worksheet assignments).  In this spirit, I strongly recommend that you spend most of your time  in pairs, or very small groups teaching each other anatomy.  I have found that this kind of "buddy system" is the best way to learn anatomy and enjoy the process.


Your Own Body - One of the handy features of a class in anatomy is that you always have an example of the subject matter available for reference, even during tests.  Many bones and muscles can be palpated, the actions of muscles can often be deduced from body movements, and merely looking at the body can be helpful in visualizing deeper structures.


Preparation and Time Commitment


        There are three important rules to live by if you intend to get the most out of this course, including a respectable grade.  The first is to come to class prepared.  Read the syllabus and relevant text material before each week starts.  If you have any questions, bring them to class with you.  The second rule is to keep up.  You are on your own for a lot of the time in each week, and it is up to you to make the best use of your time and learn the material.  Anatomy provides a bewildering number of new and strange terms.  Learning these takes practice, repetition, and TIME.  The third rule is simply to put in an appropriate amount of time.  For a three hour course, you are generally expected to put in an additional six! hours outside of class each week (that's why a 12-15 hour course load is considered full time enrollment).


        The materials used in this course fall into three general classes.  Each of these will make up one third of each exam, so divide your time accordingly:


"Organic" Preparations - These are organ preparations, skeletons, and bone collections.  These will be available for review whenever the lab is open.  It is important that you familiarize yourself with basic precautions for the use of these materials and treat them with appropriate care.


Models - Most of these cover gross anatomy and will be set up as labeled demonstrations at the beginning of each laboratory.  They will only remain out for one week, so it is important that you study them while they are available.  Some of these models are very fragile and virtually irreplaceable, so handle them with care


Histology - A number of microscopic slides will be set up as labeled demonstrations at the beginning of each laboratory.  These will only remain set up for one week.  However, the slides, the associated powerpoint guides, and microscopes will be available for your own use at all times.  The slides are in four boxes labeled "Vertebrate Histology".  Please exercise extreme caution in handling these boxes.  To replace a box would require approximately 10 hours of the instructor's time and in excess of $500.  If you are not familiar with the use of both types of binocular compound microscopes we have, please ask the instructor for assistance.


Class Session Format


        Each topic will generally start with an introductory discussion and some demonstrations by the instructor.  These will usually last the equivalent of a single class period. An outline to each week's presentation is found at the beginning of each topical guide in this syllabus.  Read through it before you come to class.  The better prepared you are, the more these sessions will resemble discussions and the less they will resemble lectures. 


        The remainder of the time allotted to each topic is for you to work your way through the demonstration materials and to work on the worksheets.  You will have to plan your time carefully and spend it efficiently to get all the way through the material in the available time.


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        The microscopes that you will be using for this course are binocular compound scopes.  You may use these at any time, as long as you do not disrupt or interfere with other ongoing laboratory or class sessions.  Demonstration slides will be set up on some of these scopes and should remain on the work tables in the back o f the room.  You should familiarize yourself as soon as possible with how the microscopes work.  Here are a few rules for use and care to keep in mind while you use the scopes:


-     If you have never used a compound binocular microscope before, ask the instructor to demonstrate it before you use it.  Microscope use will be demonstrated at the start of the course, so pay close attention during this demonstration.


-     Always carry the microscope with one hand grasping the neck and the other supporting the base.  Make sure that the cord is securely wrapped around the base.  Never try to support a microscope by the oculars (eyepieces) or the stage.  Never carry a microscope with a slide on the stage.


-     When you are finished with the microscope, put it away where you found it.  Remove the slide, turn off the light, unplug it, wrap the cord around the base, put the cover on, place it gently in its cabinet, and close the door.


-     The microscope has four objectives.  The highest power objective is an oil immersion lens.  This means that it will only be in focus and provide a clear image when there is a droplet of oil between it and the slide.  In general, the only time you will need to use oil immersion will be on some demonstration slides which will be set up for you.  If you feel that you need to use oil immersion on your own with the loan slide collections, consult with the instructor first.  With oil immersion the objective is very close to the slide, so use extreme caution (see next point).


-     When viewing a slide always start at low power.  Start with the microscope focused down as far as possible, insert the slide, and bring the slide into focus by focusing up.  Use the coarse focus knob first, then the fine focus. Never focus down on the coarse focus while looking through the microscope.   The microscope is parfocal (more or less), which means that if the slide is in focus at low power, it will remain approximately in focus as you switch to higher powers.  Use only the fine focus at higher powers.  Use the coarse focus only with the lowest power objective.  The reason for all of these rules will be obvious when you view your first slide.  It is quite possible to run the higher power objectives into the slide, thereby breaking the slide (bad) or scratching the objective (very bad).


-     Lens papers, lens cleaning solution, and KimWipes will be provided at the front desk. Never use any other materials or solutions to clean microscope lenses or slides.


-     Use the stage control knobs for moving the slide.  Don't push directly on the slide or the stage.


-     If you are using a microscope that doesn't seem to work properly, tell the instructor or leave a note on the microscope so that it can be repaired as soon as possible.


-     Handle the loan collection slides with care.  Keep them in their box slots when not in use, not piled on the table, or on your books, or in your pockets.  Handle slides only over the tables, not over the floor.  Make sure that the slide box is latched before you carry it anywhere.  Make sure that the box is right side up before you open it.  If you do break a slide, tell the instructor so that it can be replaced as soon as possible.


        The binocular microscope is designed to be looked through binocularly, that is with both eyes.  If the two images don't seem to line up, try adjusting the interocular distance by sliding the two oculars at their base.  The light intensity may be adjusted by turning the rheostat knob.  In general you will want it near the maximal value.  The condenser should be adjusted (by moving it up or down) to maximize the apparent brightness and provide uniform illumination to the field.


        The adjustment of the diaphragm will depend on the lighting effect that you want.  A good general purpose setting will be to close the diaphragm just enough to get some dimming at the rim of the field.   If you want greater contrast (at the expense of some resolution), close the diaphragm more.  This will be especially useful when viewing thin, transparent specimens such as blood smears, areolar C.T., etc. or specimens of varying optical density such as bone. If you need maximal resolution and illumination, open the diaphragm fully.  This will be useful for thick, optically uniform specimens.


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        The models which are set up on demonstration are quite a varied collection.  Some of them are rubber and virtually indestructible.  Some are plaster or paper mâché and are quite fragile.  Some are fairly exotic preparations of preserved human or animal tissue and are irreplaceable.  The best rule of thumb for handling the models is to use common sense.  Handle the models over the table, not over the floor.  Don't pour coffee on them.  Do not use pens and pencils as pointers, they leave permanent marks.  If a model is taped down, or labeled DO NOT TOUCH, then don't move it.  Don't make marks on the study cards accompanying each model.  In short, leave each model as you found it so that others may use it also.


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        Living bones are remarkably sturdy structures.  Dead bones may be surprisingly fragile.  A good rule of thumb for handling the skeletons and disarticulated bones, especially the skull, feet, and hands, is to treat them as if they were irreplaceable.  They are.  Due to recent reforms in the policy of the governments of India and Pakistan towards the procurement and export of skeletons, it is now practically impossible to get replacements. 


        Bend the joints on the skeleton and disarticulated limbs carefully or not at all.  Do not allow the arms or legs to drop back against the rib cage or the stand.  Don't bend the fingers or toes.  Don't allow the jaw to snap shut.  Don't pose the skeletons in funny postures.  The skull has many thin bony plates and delicate processes, so don't poke objects into the orbits (eyes) or the nasal cavity (nose).  Remove bones from and return bones to their containers carefully.  Be especially careful with the hand, the foot, and the vertebral column.  If you drop a heavy bone, such as the femur, into a box it can shatter a smaller bone or break off a bony process.


        Finally, for obvious reasons, never use pencils, pens, or markers as pointers.


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        In this course you may have the opportunity to examine and handle actual preserved human and/or animal organs.  We do this because there is simply no substitute for the real thing in anatomy.  However, with opportunity comes responsibility, so here are some basic guidelines for care and use of the cadaver.  These guidelines also apply to preserved organ preparations.


-     Always wear gloves when handling any human or animal tissue.  Avoid touching your face with the gloves.  Always remove and dispose of the gloves, then wash your hands when you are done.


-     If you feel faint, first tell someone, then find a quiet place and sit down.  If you still feel faint, get someone to help you lie down on one of the tables or help you leave the room to get some fresh air.  Don't be shy or embarrassed about admitting that you feel badly and asking for help.  In a similar vein, keep an eye on those around you, and be ready to help them if they appear to need it.  If you miss part of a demo as a consequence, the instructor will be happy to repeat it for you.


-     Preserved organs must not be allowed to dry out.  A single overnight exposure will ruin most organ preps.  Whenever you are finished examining a preserved organ, return it to its fluid-filled container, and seal the container.


-     Handle the organs with extreme care.  Do not pull on structures to see behind them.  Do not directly handle blood vessels or nerves; use the sticks provided you to gently lift them or displace them to one side.  Basically keep in mind that quite a bit of time went into preparing the organ, once you damage something it will stay damaged.


-     Use only the sticks or your fingers as pointers.  Point, don't poke.  Never use pens or pencils as pointers.


        Finally a word about the etiquette of working with body parts.  Remember that the organ once belonged to a living person, and that person deserves to have his/her body treated with some respect.  Also keep in mind that most students (yourself probably included) have some emotional difficulty dealing with dead bodies, particularly in the first weeks of the course.  It is natural to ease the tension by making jokes.  But "cadaver humor" is a very subjective thing, and what is funny to you may be extremely offensive to your neighbor.  Curiosity, interest, and uneasiness are appropriate; unrestrained levity is not.


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        The topical guides are designed to steer you through the course.  The material for each topic may be modified slightly by the instructor as we go along, so make sure that you make a note of these changes.


Each topical guide will consist of 5 sections:


1)   Outline  This is an overview of the organ system and a presentation of the histology being studied under this topic.  It is a good guide to what is most important in the reading you should do to prepare for the lab.


2)   Gross Anatomy List  This is a listing of exactly what structures you should expect to be able to identify on the charts, models, organ preparations, and skeletons.  You should use it as a reference list.


3)   Guide to Gross Anatomy  This is a self-paced guide to the gross anatomy presented on demonstration.  At some point, you should work through it using the models, charts, organ preparations, and skeletal preparations. Work by yourself, or better yet, in a small group.  As you develop questions, ask the instructor and other students, or consult your texts, especially the van de Graaff & Crawley, Kapit & Elson, and Grine atlases.


4)   Guide to Histology  This is a self-paced guide to the microscopic anatomy presented .  It is focused on the histology loan collections.  At some point, you should work through it using the student microscopes and the demonstration slides.  Work by yourself, or better yet, in a small group.  As you develop questions, ask the instructor or other students, consult your texts, or look up the appropriate photomicrographs from the Wheaters Functional Histology set.


5)   Guide to Physiology  Laboratory physiology exercises will include both selections from the laboratory text and exercises designed or adapted by the instructor.  Often these will include elements designed to give you a practical, hands-on intrroduction to basic clinical physiological assessment methods.


To get the most out of your time, as well as make the best use of your instructor's time, it is essential that you prepare adequately for each class session.  The best way to do this is as follows:


       Before the first class session for each topic, work through the Topical Guide:


1)   Read the Lecture Outline and the Gross Anatomy List (sections 1 & 2).


2)   Read through the Guide to Gross Anatomy (section 3).  Make a note in the margins of any terms or concepts that you don't understand, have questions about, or don't recognize from your text reading.


3)   Read through the Guide to Histology (section 4).  Again, make a note in the margins of any terms or concepts that you don't understand, have questions about, or don't recognize from your text reading.


4)   Read through the Guide to Physiology (section 5).  Yet again, make a note of any terms or concepts that you don't understand, have questions about, or don't recognize from your text reading.


5)   Look over the Worksheet. 


      During each class and lab period period make sure that your questions get answered. 


NOTE:  It may or may not be a useful expediture of time to actually complete the worksheet during the lab period.  In any case, make sure that you are not completing the worksheet at the expense of actually working with and learning the models and slides.  Remember that quizzes and exams are graded more critically and count much more than worksheets.


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root/                                             Greek/

suffix                                           Latin                 meaning                                                    example

a/ an                                             G                        without, not                                              anaerobic

ab                                                 L                        from                                                            abnormal

acro                                              G                        highest                                                       acrodont

ad                                                 L                        to, toward                                                  adduct

algia                                             G                        pain                                                            neuralgia

ambi                                             L                        both                                                            ambidextrous

amphi                                           G                        both sides                                                 amphicelous

an/ ana                                        G                        up, back, again                                         anapophysis

andro                                           G                        man                                                             androgen

ante                                              L                        before                                                         antemortem

antero                                          L                        before                                                         anteroinferior

anti                                               L                        against                                                       antitoxin

apsid                                            G                        a mesh of a net, an arch                          diapsid

arch/ archi                                   G                        chief                                                           archenteron

arti                                                L                        little joint                                                   articular

ase                                                                          an enzyme                                                 amylase

auto                                             G                        self                                                              autonomic


bi                                                  L                        two, twice                                                  biceps

blast                                             G                        sprout                                                        blastocyst

brachi,brachio                            G,L                     arm                                                              brachiocephalic

brachy                                         G                        short                                                           brachydont

brady                                           G                        slow                                                            bradycardia

branchi                                        G                        gill                                                               branchial


centi                                             L                        one one-hundredth part                          centimeter

carn                                              L                        flesh                                                           carnivorous

carpo                                           G                        wrist                                                           carporadialis

cata                                              G                        down                                                          catabolism

cav                                               L                        hollow                                                        caval

cele/ celo                                     G                        hollow                                                        celom

cephal                                          G                        of the head                                                brachiocephalic

ceps                                                                        head                                                           biceps

cercal                                           G                        a tail                                                            diphycercal

cheiro/ chiro                               G                        hand                                                           chiropterygium

chondr                                         G                        cartilage                                                     chondrocyte

chromata                                     G                        color                                                           chromatophore

co/ con                                        L                        together                                                     concentrate

corac                                                                      a crow                                                        coracoid

coron                                                                      a crown                                                      coronary

cribri                                            L                        a seive                                                        cribriform

cten                                              G                        a comb                                                       ctenoid

cyclo                                            G                        a ring or circle                                           cyclosis

cyano                                          L                        blue                                                            cyanosis

cyno                                            G                        a dog                                                          cynodont


dactyl                                          G                        a finger                                                       pterodactyl

de                                                 L                        down, without                                          decerebration

deca                                             G                        ten                                                              decagram

deci                                              L                        one tenth                                                   decibel

dendr                                           G                        a tree                                                          dendrite

dent                                             L                        a tooth                                                       dentition

derm                                             G                        skin                                                             dermatome

di                                                  G                        two, twice                                                  diapsid

dia                                                G                        through                                                      diastema

diplo                                            G                        double                                                        diploid

diphy                                           G                        double                                                        diphycercal

dis                                                                           apart                                                           dissection

dont                                             G                        a tooth                                                       thecadont

dys                                                                         difficult, painful                                        dysmenorrhea



root/                                             Greek/

suffix                                           Latin                 meaning                                                    example

ec                                                                            away from, out of place                           eccentric

ectasis                                                                    dilation                                                       bronchiectasis

ecto                                              G                        outside                                                       ectoderm

elasmo                                         G                        a flat plate                                                  elasmobranch

emia                                                                        blood                                                          anemia

en                                                                            in, into                                                        encapsulated

endo/ ento                                  G                        within                                                         endoderm

epi                                                G                        upon, above                                              epidermis

erythro                                        G                        red                                                              erythrocyte

esthesia                                                                 sensation                                                   anesthesia

eu                                                 G                        well, good                                                  euphoria

e/ ex                                             L                        out of                                                         exfoliation

exo                                               G                        outside                                                       exoskeleton

extra                                             L                        on the outside                                          extracellular


form                                             L                        shape                                                         cuneiform


gastr                                            G                        belly                                                           gastrocnemius

gen                                               G                        race, family                                                genital

genesis                                                                  generation                                                 pathogenesis

gli                                                 G                        glue                                                            neuroglia

glo                                                L                        a ball                                                           glomerulus

glosso                                         G                        tongue                                                       glossopharyngeus

gnatho                                         G                        the jaw                                                       gnathostome

gon                                              G                        offspring                                                    gonad

grade                                           L                        walk                                                            retrograde

gymn                                           G                        naked                                                         gymnasium


helico                                           G                        spiral                                                          helicotrema

hem                                              G                        related to blood                                        hemoglobin

hemi                                             G                        half                                                             hemisphere

hepato                                         G                        the liver                                                      hepatoduodenal

hetero                                          G                        the other                                                    heterosexual

holo                                             G                        whole                                                         holocrine

homeo                                         G                        similar                                                         homeostasis

homo                                           G                        same                                                           homologous

hyo                                              G                        shaped like the letter upsilon                 hyoid

hydro                                           L                        water or hydrogen                                   hydrocephalous

hyper                                           G                        over above                                                hyperactivity

hypo                                            G                        under, beneath                                         hypodermis


in                                                  L                        not                                                              innominate

infra                                             L                        below                                                         infraspinatus

inter                                             L                        between                                                     intervertebral

intero                                           L                        interior, inner                                            interoceptor

intra                                                                        within                                                         intracellular

intro                                                                        inwardly                                                     introversion

iso                                                G                        equal to                                                      isometric

itis                                                                           inflamation                                                dermatitis

intra                                                                        within                                                         intracellular

intro                                                                        inwardly                                                     introversion

iso                                                G                        equal to                                                      isometric

itis                                                                           inflamation                                                dermatitis


root/                                             Greek/

suffix                                           Latin                 meaning                                                    example

 kerato                                          G                        relating to horny tissue                           keratohyaline


lemma                                          G                        skin                                                             neurilemma

leuco/leuko                                 G                        white                                                          leucocyte

lipo                                               G                        fat                                                               lipochrome

logy                                             G                        discourse, science                                   physiology


macro                                           G                        large                                                           macrophage

mal                                                                          bad, disease                                              malady

mania                                                                      madness                                                    egomania

mega/ megalo                                                        large, great                                                acromegaly

melan                                           G                        black                                                           melanocyte

mere                                             G                        a part                                                          myomere

mes/ meso                                   G                        middle                                                        mesoderm

meta                                             G                        change,after                                              metabolism

micro                                                                      small                                                           microscope

morph                                          G                        form, shape                                               morphogenesis

multi                                             L                        many                                                          multipolar

myel                                             G                        narrow                                                        myelencephalon

myo                                              G                        mouse, muscle                                          myograph

myx                                                                         a mucus                                                     myxedema


necro                                                                      death                                                          necrosis

neo                                                                         new                                                             neocortex

nephr                                           G                        kidney                                                        nephron

nomic                                           G                        law                                                              autonomic


oculo                                           L                        eye                                                              oculomotor

oid                                                                          like, resembling                                         thyroid

omni                                             L                        all                                                                omnivore

oma                                                                         diseased condition, tumor                      carcinoma

omo                                              G                        shoulder                                                    omohyoid

oligo                                                                       scanty, deficient                                       oligodendrocyte

opisth                                          G                        hind                                                            opithonephrous

ortho                                            G                        straight, right                                            orthopedics

ose                                                                          sugar                                                          glucose

osis                                                                         a disease, a morbid process                   tuberculosis

osteo                                           G                        bone                                                           osteoblast

oto                                               G                        ear                                                               otolyth



root/                                             Greek/

suffix                                           Latin                 meaning                                                    example

pachy                                          G                        thich                                                           pachyderm

paleo                                            G                        old                                                              paleocortex

pan                                                                         all                                                                panacea

para                                              G                        beside                                                        paravertebral

pathy                                                                      disease                                                       endocrinopathy

penia                                                                      decrease, poverty                                    leucopenia

penta                                           G                        five                                                             pentydactyl

peri                                               G                        around                                                       pericardium

perisso                                        G                        extraordinary, odd                                    perissodactyl

pexy                                                                        suspension, fixation                                nephropexy

phil                                                                         love, attraction                                         eosinophil

philia                                                                      increase, abundance                                eosinophilia

phore                                           G                        bearer, carrier                                            chromatophore

phage                                                                     to eat                                                          macrophage

physis                                         G                        grow, outgrowth                                      epiphysis

plac                                              G                        flat                                                              placoid

plant                                            L                        the sole                                                      plantigrade

plasia                                                                      growth, increase                                       hypoplasia

plasm                                           G                        molded                                                       sarcoplasm

plasty                                                                     molding, reoairing                                    thoroplasty

platy                                            G                        wide                                                            platypus

plegia                                                                     paralysis                                                    paraplegia

pleur                                            G                        rib, side of the body                                pluerosy

pluri                                             L                        more                                                           pluriglandular

pod                                              G                        foot                                                             tetrapod

poiesis                                                                   making, forming                                        erythropoiesis

post                                                                        after, behind                                              postpartum

pre                                                L                        in front, before                                          prevertebral

pro                                               G                        in front, before                                          prophylaxis

procto                                          G                        the anus                                                     proctoscope

proto                                            G                        first, foremost                                           protocercal

pseudo                                                                   false, spurious                                          pseudostratified

pter                                              G                        feather, wing                                             helicopter

ptosis                                                                     falling, dropping                                       visceroptosis

pyo                                                                         related to pus                                            pyoremia


quad                                            L                        square, four                                               quadrate


radi                                               L                        rod, spoke, ray                                          radius

re                                                  L                        again, backward                                       recurrent

retro                                             L                        backward, behind                                     retroperitoneal

rhea/ rheo                                   G                        flow, discharge                                         leukorrhea

rhino                                            G                        the nose                                                     rhinoceus

rhod                                             G                        a rose                                                         rhodopsin



root/                                             Greek/

suffix                                           Latin                 meaning                                                    example

salt                                               L                        to dance                                                     saltatory

sarco                                            G                        flesh, muscle                                             sarcoplasm

saur                                              G                        lizard                                                           dinosaur

scler                                             G                        hard                                                            sclera

scopy                                                                     visual examination                                   cystoscopy

sect                                              L                        to cut                                                          dissect

ser/ sero                                      L                        whey                                                          serum

semi                                                                        half                                                             semimembranosus

sis                                                                           state, condition                                        leukocytosis

soma/ somato                             G                        the body                                                    somatotropic

sphen                                          G                        wedge                                                        sphenoid

splanchno                                   G                        inward parts of the body                        splanchnopleure

stato                                            G                        standing                                                    statoacoustic

stomo                                          G                        the mouth                                                  stomodeum

sub                                               L                        under                                                          submucosa

supra                                           L                        above                                                         supraclavicular

sym                                              G                        with, union                                                symphysis

syn                                               G                        with, union                                                synarthrosis


tarso                                            G                        the flat of the foot                                    tarsal

tect                                               L                        roof                                                             tectum

tel/ tele                                        G                        far off                                                         telencephalon

thermo/ thermy                          G                        heat                                                            homeothermy

tomy                                                                       to cut                                                          anatomy

trans                                            L                        across                                                        transect

tri                                                 G                        three                                                           trigeminal

trophy                                                                    nutrition , grown                                      atrophy

tropy                                                                      deviation                                                   thyrotropy


ultima                                           L                        furthest, last                                              ultimobranchial

unguli                                          L                        a fingernail, a toenail                               unguligrade

ur/ uro/ uria                                G                        urine                                                           glycosuria


vesic                                            L                        the blader                                                  vesicouterine

vore                                             L                        to eat                                                          omnivore


xiphi                                             G                        sword                                                         xiphoid


zyg                                               G                        join two things together                         zygapophysis


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