SCHEDULE OF LABS
(subject to revision):
Metabolism, Anatomical Terms
||1, 2, 3
Organization; Cytology; Tissue Types
||1, 2, 3, 4, 17
Proper; Diffusion; Integument; Epithelium; Membrane
||no lab - Labor Day
Cartilage and Bone
- during lab period
Axial Musculature; Muscle
||The Skull; The Head
no lab - Fall Break
- during lab period
||Central Nervous System
||Peripheral and Visceral
no laboratory - Thanksgiving Break
||CNS Activity &
||Reading Day -
all written materials due by 5:00PM
and Laboratory Final Exams
*lab 3 exercises will take
place during other class & lab sessions
The primary objectives of this course are to develop the ability
to visualize the forms of body structures that are hidden
beneath the surface of the living human being, to understand the
major functions of these various structures, to understand how
"form follows function" on gross and microscopic levels, and to
allow you to explore your growing understanding of the body from
any other perspective which interests you. Such perspectives
might include development, evolution, pathology, sport/exercise
physiology, bioengineering, and biomechanics.
major emphasis of the course will be structural relationships.
This includes the microscopic structure and function of cells and tissues,
the gross (macroscopic) structure and function of organs, the spatial
relationships between organs within each system as well as
within the body as a whole, and how the body meets the
physiological challenges presented by the surrounding
environment. As you will learn,
structure and function are so intimately related that an
understanding of one is not possible without an understanding of
the other. When it is appropriate to the course, additional
aspects of anatomy and physiology will be presented. These will include
considerations of surface anatomy - those aspects of body
structure or action which can be palpated or observed at the
surface of the body, developmental anatomy - how the body
changes from conception to senescence, comparative anatomy - how
the structure and function of the human body compare to those of
related vertebrates, genetics - the heritability of form and
function, ecological physiology - how the body is adapted to and
accommodates the ecology of the human species, behavioral
physiology - how behavioral and physiological process
coordinate, and pathology - changes in anatomy and physiology that occur with
injury or disease.
Sources of Information
There are several sources of information that are available to
you in this course. In order to get the most from the course,
you are strongly urged to take advantage of all of these:
Discussions - The class discussions and demonstrations are
meant to complement each other. You should integrate material
presented in discussions and demonstrations as much as possible
with your own investigations, to clarify your understanding.
Texts - There are two
required tests for this course.
Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology is the primary text
for the lecture/discussion part of the course, although almost
any good, recent anatomy text would do as well. You should
use this text as an introduction to new topics, to be read
before each relevant class or laboratory period. This text
will also serve as an authoritative reference for
anatomical and physiological terms and principles. Exploring Anatomy and Physiology in the Laboratory
is an essential part of the laboratory for the course. It
will serve as a pictorial atlas for anatomical structures and a
workbook for learning terminology and identifying structures.
It also contains guides to physiological exercises which will
you will be following in almost every laboratory session.
- The on-line laboratory manual is meant to serve
as a hands-on guide to and review of the material presented in the
class. It should provide an indication of the relative
weighting of different subjects. The material in this
together with the discussions, demonstrations, and text readings, is the basic
information content of the course.
Demonstration Materials - A variety of materials will be out
on demonstration each week. These materials are NOT
simply on display. The whole point of having this material
available and labeled is for you to work with these materials,
to learn anatomy from a "hands-on approach.
and Physiology Reference Collection – A& P books come in two
basic flavors – 1) texts, which describe anatomical structures
and physiological relationships and 2) atlases, which serve as
physical guides to identifying structures. Several
differeent texts and atlases will be kept on a shelf in the back
of Room 128. These are freely available for your use as
references during lab periods or personal study times, however,
THEY ARE NOT TO BE REMOVED FROM ROOM 128.
One such supplementary
text/atlas for gross anatomy is The Anatomy Coloring Book
by Kapit and Elson. Do not be fooled by the title, this is a
simple and elegant reference atlas, and an excellent way to
learn anatomy. The idea of a coloring book may seem frivolous,
but it is a painless and effective way to learn anatomical terms
and spatial relationships, and is consequently one of the best
selling anatomy texts in the world. An excellent additional
laboratory guide is Regional Human Anatomy by Frederick
E. Grine. You should note that as a regional anatomy
text it is organized a bit differently than this systematic
anatomy class and lab. The best guide to microscopic anatomy is
Wheater’s Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas
by Barbara Young (Ed.). A set of CD photomicrographs from this text
will be made available on a designated computer in the lab room.
Internet – The Internet is a great source of ideas, and a
rather risky source of factual information. Feel free to look
up topics on the web, but make sure that you are getting
anything that you regard as actual information from a reliable
The Instructor - The instructor is a major source of
information available to you. Don't hesitate to ask him
questions, either during lab periods or during office hours.
Other - However, there is only one instructor. Another
major source of information should be the other students.
Learning anatomy well requires hands-on experience, practice,
and, above all, repetition. The more times you hear a
term, or better yet say it, the more likely you will be to
remember it. Also, the best way to find out if you really
understand something is to try to explain it to someone else.
So, talk to other students during the labs, ask questions,
share your ideas, etc. You will get the most out of your lab
sessions if you approach the course as a cooperative venture (excluding
worksheet assignments). In this spirit, I strongly
recommend that you spend most of your time in pairs, or very
small groups teaching each other anatomy and reviewing the
related physiological principles. I have found that
this kind of "buddy system" is the best way to learn
both anatomy and physiology and
to enjoy the process.
Own Body - One of the handy features of an A&P class is that you always have an example of the subject matter
available for reference, even during tests. Many bones and
muscles can be palpated, the actions of muscles can often be
deduced from body movements, and merely looking at the body can
be helpful in visualizing deeper structures.
Preparation and Time Commitment
There are three important rules to live by
if you intend to get the most out of this course, including a
respectable grade. The first is to come to class prepared.
Read the syllabus and relevant text material before each
week starts. If you have any questions, bring them to class
with you. The second rule is to keep up. You are on
your own for a lot of the time in each week, and it is up to you
to make the best use of your time and learn the material.
Anatomy provides a bewildering number of new and strange terms.
Learning these takes practice, repetition, and TIME. The
third rule is simply to put in an appropriate amount of time.
For a three hour course, you are generally expected to put in an
additional six! hours outside of class each week (that's
why a 12-15 hour course load is considered full time
The materials used in this course fall into four
general classes. Each of these will make up about one
fourth of each
exam, so divide your time accordingly:
"Organic" Preparations - These are organ preparations,
skeletons, and bone collections. These will be available for
review whenever the lab is open. It is important that you
familiarize yourself with basic precautions for the use of these
materials and treat them with appropriate care.
- Most of these cover gross anatomy and will be set up as
labeled demonstrations at the beginning of each laboratory.
They will only remain out for one week, so it is important that
you study them while they are available. Some of these models
are very fragile and virtually irreplaceable, so handle them
Histology - A number of microscopic slides will be set up as
labeled demonstrations at the beginning of each laboratory.
These will only remain set up for one week. However, the
slides, the associated card labels, and microscopes will be
available for your own use at all times. The slides are in four
boxes labeled "Vertebrate Histology". Please exercise
extreme caution in handling these boxes. To replace a box
would require approximately 10 hours of the instructor's time
and in excess of $500. If you are not familiar with the use of
both types of binocular compound microscopes we have, please
ask the instructor for assistance.
Physiological Instruments -
Most physiological measures require some sort of
instrumentation, often combining both mechanical and electronic
components. These will be accessible during the designated
laboratory session in which they are introduced and used.
However, because some of these are delicate, may be used in
other courses, and/or may be physically housed in other rooms,
these instruments may not be generally available to you at other
times. Therefore, it is important that you keep careful
notes and records of how each instrument functions, what and how
it measures, and what your results are during each
CARE AND USE OF MICROSCOPES AND SLIDES
microscopes that you will be using for this course are binocular
compound scopes. You may use these at
any time, as long as you do not disrupt or interfere with other
ongoing laboratory or class sessions. Demonstration slides will
be set up on some of these scopes and should remain on the work
tables in the back o f the room. You should familiarize
yourself as soon as possible with how the microscopes work.
Here are a few rules for use and care to keep in mind while you
use the scopes:
- If you have never used a compound binocular
microscope before, ask the instructor to demonstrate it
before you use it. Microscope use will be demonstrated at
the start of the course, so pay close attention during this
- Always carry the microscope with one
hand grasping the neck and the other supporting the base. Make
sure that the cord is securely wrapped around the base.
Never try to support a microscope by the oculars (eyepieces)
or the stage. Never carry a microscope with a slide on
- When you are finished with the microscope,
put it away where you found it. Remove the slide, turn off the
light, unplug it, wrap the cord around the base, put the cover
on, place it gently in its cabinet, and close the door.
- The microscope has four objectives. The
highest power objective is an oil immersion lens. This means
that it will only be in focus and provide a clear image when
there is a droplet of oil between it and the slide. In general,
the only time you will need to use oil immersion will be on some
demonstration slides which will be set up for you. If you feel
that you need to use oil immersion on your own with the loan
slide collections, consult with the instructor first. With oil
immersion the objective is very close to the slide, so use
extreme caution (see next point).
- When viewing a slide always start at low
power. Start with the microscope focused down as far
as possible, insert the slide, and bring the slide into focus by
focusing up. Use the coarse focus knob first, then the
fine focus. Never focus down on the coarse focus while
looking through the microscope. The microscope is parfocal
(more or less), which means that if the slide is in focus at low
power, it will remain approximately in focus as you switch to
higher powers. Use only the fine focus at higher powers.
Use the coarse focus only with the lowest power objective.
The reason for all of these rules will be obvious when you view
your first slide. It is quite possible to run the higher power
objectives into the slide, thereby breaking the slide (bad) or
scratching the objective (very bad).
- Lens papers, lens cleaning solution, and
KimWipes will be provided at the front desk. Never use
any other materials or solutions to clean microscope lenses or
the stage control knobs for moving the slide. Don't push
directly on the slide or the stage.
- If you are using a microscope that doesn't
seem to work properly, tell the instructor or leave a note on
the microscope so that it can be repaired as soon as possible.
- Handle the loan collection slides with care.
Keep them in their box slots when not in use, not piled on the
table, or on your books, or in your pockets. Handle slides only
over the tables, not over the floor. Make sure that the slide
box is latched before you carry it anywhere. Make sure
that the box is right side up before you open it. If you
do break a slide, tell the instructor so that it can be replaced
as soon as possible.
binocular microscope is designed to be looked through
binocularly, that is with both eyes. If the two images don't
seem to line up, try adjusting the interocular distance
by sliding the two oculars at their base. The light
intensity may be adjusted by turning the rheostat knob. In
general you will want it near the maximal value. The
condenser should be adjusted (by moving it up or down) to
maximize the apparent brightness and provide uniform
illumination to the field.
adjustment of the diaphragm will depend on the lighting
effect that you want. A good general purpose setting will be to
close the diaphragm just enough to get some dimming at the rim
of the field. If you want greater contrast (at the expense of
some resolution), close the diaphragm more. This will be
especially useful when viewing thin, transparent specimens such
as blood smears, areolar C.T., etc. or specimens of varying
optical density such as bone. If you need maximal resolution and
illumination, open the diaphragm fully. This will be useful for
thick, optically uniform specimens.
CARE AND USE OF MODELS
models which are set up on demonstration are quite a varied
collection. Some of them are rubber and virtually
indestructible. Some are plaster or paper mâché and are quite
fragile. Some are fairly exotic preparations of preserved human
or animal tissue and are irreplaceable. The best rule of thumb
for handling the models is to use common sense. Handle the
models over the table, not over the floor. Don't pour coffee on
them. Do not use pens and pencils as pointers, they leave
permanent marks. If a model is taped down, or labeled DO NOT
TOUCH, then don't move it. Don't make marks on the study cards
accompanying each model. In short, leave each model as you
found it so that others may use it also.
CARE AND USE OF BONES AND SKELETONS
are remarkably sturdy structures. Dead bones may be
surprisingly fragile. A good rule of thumb for handling the
skeletons and disarticulated bones, especially the skull, feet,
and hands, is to treat them as if they were irreplaceable.
They are. Due to recent reforms in the policy of the
governments of India and Pakistan towards the procurement and
export of skeletons, it is now practically impossible to get
Bend the joints on the skeleton and disarticulated limbs
carefully. Do not allow the arms or legs to drop back against
the rib cage or the stand. Don't bend the fingers or toes.
Don't allow the jaw to snap shut. Don't pose the skeletons in
funny postures. The skull has many thin bony plates and
delicate processes, so don't poke objects into the orbits (eyes)
or the nasal cavity (nose). Remove bones from and return bones
to their containers carefully. Be especially careful with the
hand, the foot, and the vertebral column. If you drop a heavy
bone, such as the femur, into a box it can shatter a smaller
bone or break off a bony process.
Finally, for obvious reasons, never use pencils, pens, or
markers as pointers.
CARE AND USE OF ORGAN PREPARATIONS
this course you may have the opportunity to examine and handle
actual preserved human and/or animal organs. We do this because
there is simply no substitute for the real thing in anatomy.
However, with opportunity comes responsibility, so here are some
basic guidelines for care and use of the cadaver. These
guidelines also apply to preserved organ preparations.
Always wear gloves when handling any human or animal tissue.
Avoid touching your face with the gloves. Always remove and
dispose of the gloves, then wash your hands when you are
you feel faint, first tell someone, then find a quiet
place and sit down. If you still feel faint, get someone to
help you lie down on one of the tables or help you leave the
room to get some fresh air. Don't be shy or embarrassed about
admitting that you feel badly and asking for help. In a similar
vein, keep an eye on those around you, and be ready to help them
if they appear to need it. If you miss part of a demo as a
consequence, the instructor will be happy to repeat it for you.
Preserved organs must not be allowed to dry out. A
single overnight exposure will ruin most organ preps. Whenever
you are finished examining a preserved organ, return it to its
fluid-filled container, and seal the container.
Handle the organs with extreme care. Do not pull on structures
to see behind them. Do not directly handle blood vessels or
nerves; use the sticks provided you to gently lift them or
displace them to one side. Basically keep in mind that quite a
bit of time went into preparing the organ, once you damage
something it will stay damaged.
only the sticks or your fingers as pointers. Point, don't
poke. Never use pens or pencils as pointers.
Finally a word about the etiquette of working with body parts.
Remember that the organ once belonged to a living person, and
that person deserves to have his/her body treated with some
respect. Also keep in mind that most students (yourself
probably included) have some emotional difficulty dealing with
dead bodies, particularly in the first weeks of the course. It
is natural to ease the tension by making jokes. But "cadaver
humor" is a very subjective thing, and what is funny to you may
be extremely offensive to your neighbor. Curiosity, interest,
and uneasiness are appropriate; unrestrained levity is not.
CARE AND USE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL
In this course you will have the opportunity to learn and
practice the use of a wide variety of physiological instruments
for making a wide variety of physiological measures and
assessments. Each instrument has its own unique rules for
proper and appropriate use, its own potential dangers stemming
from misuse, and its own vulnerabilities to damage or
destruction. These will be introduced with each particular
piece of instrumentation and reviewed during the relevant
laboratory session. There are some general guidelines for
using physiological instruments safely and productively:
Pay attention. Obey all posted instructions and rules.
Be serious and responsible. Do not "play around" with
physiological instruments. As an example, playfully
tapping on the tambor or bell of a stethoscope can permanently
deafen the wearer.
If you are at all unsure of how to properly use an instrument,
ask for guidance. If there is no one present to ask, do
not use the instrument.
Handle all instruments with extreme care. Act as if they
are irreplaceable. They are.
HOW TO USE THE WEEKLY GUIDES
The topical guides are designed to steer you
through the course. The material for each topic may be
modified slightly by the instructor as we go along, so make sure
that you make a note of these changes.
Each topical guide will consist of 5 sections:
Outline This is an overview of the organ system and a
presentation of the histology being studied under this topic.
It is a good guide to what is most important in the reading you
should do to prepare for the lab.
Gross Anatomy List This is a listing of exactly what
structures you should expect to be able to identify on the
charts, models, organ preparations, and skeletons. You should
use it as a reference list.
Guide to Gross Anatomy This is a self-paced guide to the
gross anatomy presented on demonstration. At some point, you
should work through it using the models, charts, organ
preparations, and skeletal preparations. Work by yourself, or
better yet, in a small group. The Amerman laboratory text
will generally contain several workbook exercises to steer your
through part of your study. As you develop questions, ask the
instructor and other students, or consult your texts, especially
the van de Graaff & Crawley, Kapit & Elson, and Grine atlases.
Guide to Histology This is a self-paced guide to the
microscopic anatomy presented . It is focused on the histology
loan collections. At some point, you should work through it
using the student microscopes and the demonstration slides.
Work by yourself, or better yet, in a small group. Again,
the Ammerman laboratory text will have pictorial guides to some
of the slides on demonstration. As you
develop questions, ask the instructor or other students, consult
your texts, or look up the appropriate photomicrographs from the Wheaters Functional Histology set.
Physiological Exercises This section will guide
your through the physiological exercises and measures which are
part of each week's laboratory session. Some of these we
will do together as a single class group, some you will do in
smaller groups, and some you will be responsible for doing at
your own pace. Many of these exercises will be detailed in
the Amerman laboratory text.
To get the most out of your time, as well as make
the best use of your instructor's time, it is essential that
you prepare adequately for each class session. The best way
to do this is as follows:
the first class session for each topic, work through the Topical
the Lecture Outline and the Gross Anatomy List (sections 1 & 2).
through the Guide to Gross Anatomy (section 3). Make a note
in the margins of any terms or concepts that you don't
understand, have questions about, or don't recognize from your
through the Guide to Histology (section 4). Make a note in the margins of any terms or concepts
that you don't understand, have questions about, or don't
recognize from your text reading.
through the Guide to Physiological Exercises (section 5).
Again, make a note in the margins of any terms or concepts
that you don't understand, have questions about, or don't
recognize from your text reading. For each measure if you
do not understand what is being measured, roughly how the
instrument performs this measure, and what the larger
physiological significance of the measure is, then make a note
and be sure to ask about this during the lab session or in
over the Worksheet. Again, make a note of any terms or concepts
that you don't understand, have questions about, or don't
recognize from your text reading.
each class period make sure
that your questions get answered.
HOW TO USE THE LABORATORY TEXT
In each week's guide,
specific numbered sections of the Amerman laboratory text will
be referenced. You should carefully work through these
sections using the materials available in the laboratory room,
including bones, organ preparations, models, slides, and
physiological instruments. As you work through each
section, be sure to fill in all blanks spaces and and answer all
questions. The more rigorously and thoroughly you do this,
the more you are likely to learn and retain from each laboratory
LATIN AND GREEK WORD ORIGINS
G without, not
G up, back,
G a mesh of a net, an
L one one-hundredth
G of the
L a seive
G a ring or
away from, out of place eccentric
G a flat
L out of
L on the
G related to
G shaped like the letter
L water or
G relating to horny
bad, disease malady
like, resembling thyroid
diseased condition, tumor carcinoma
a disease, a morbid process tuberculosis
decrease, poverty leucopenia
suspension, fixation nephropexy
increase, abundance eosinophilia
G rib, side of the
L in front,
G in front,
related to pus
L rod, spoke,
visual examination cystoscopy
G inward parts of the
G the flat of the
thermo/ thermy G
nutrition , grown atrophy
L a fingernail, a
ur/ uro/ uria
L the blader
G join two things