Jan. 9, 10
|Lab I: Taxonomy and Systematics
Jan. 24, 25
Lab 2: Simulations in Evolution & Population Genetics
|Lab 3: Diversity of the Bacteria and Protists
Feb 7, 8
Diversity of the Fungi
Feb. 14, 15
CLASS AND LAB
Lab 5: Diversity of the Invertebrates I
Feb. 28, March 1
Lab 6: Diversity of the Invertebrates II
March 7, 8
No Labs - Spring Break
Lab 7: Diversity of the Vertebrates I
|Lab 8: Diversity of the Vertebrates II
CLASS AND LAB EXAM II
|Lab 9: Diversity of the Plants I
No Labs - Student Scholarship Day and Holiday
April 18, 19
Lab10: Diversity of the Plants II
May 2, 3
CLASS FINAL EXAMS
LABORATORY SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Laboratory study and investigation
can be both fun and rewarding; however, it can involve a certain
amount of risk due to the nature of the equipment (e.g.,
glassware, hot plates), specimens (e.g., Ascaris, bacteria)
and/or chemicals (e.g., formalin, hydrochloric acid, sodium
hydroxide) used. In order to minimize the chances of accidents
and injury, the following precautions must be followed in all
1. NO SMOKING, EATING, or DRINKING at any time.
2. Shoes must be worn at all times (sandals are not shoes).
3. Safety glasses and/or aprons (supplied by the department)
will be required for the duration of some labs. You will be
notified by the instructor when these must be worn.
4. Know the locations of fire extinguishers, eye-wash stations,
fire blankets, safety showers, first aid stations, and
containers for broken glass.
5. In case of defective or broken equipment:
-- Do not attempt to unplug frayed electric cords yourself;
-- Do not attempt to clean up any broken glassware yourself;
-- Report all defective equipment to the instructor.
6. Be sure electrical cords (e.g., of microscopes and hot
plates) are out of the way of traffic. Tuck them under the desk.
7. Use hot plates with care:
-- Remove beakers from hot plates using a suitable protective
asbestos glove or tongs);
-- Do not let solutions on hot plates boil dry;
-- Turn off and unplug hot plates after use.
8. Use all chemicals with care:
-- AVOID GETTING ANY CHEMICAL ON YOUR SKIN OR CLOTHING;
-- AVOID BREATHING ANY CHEMICAL FUMES;
-- Read labels carefully before you open a bottle;
-- Do not return unused reagents to the bottle;
-- Dispose of waste in proper container;
-- Dispose of biohazardous materials in autoclavable BIOHAZARD
-- If chemicals get into your eyes or on your skin, FLUSH THE
AREAS WITH COPIOUS AMOUNTS OF COLD WATER IMMEDIATELY.
9. Report major chemical spills to the instructor immediately.
-- Do not attempt to clean up such spills yourself (NOTE: this
thermometers, which contain toxic mercury).
10. Report IMMEDIATELY all personal injuries to the instructor.
11. Be sure to sign the lab safety sheet and return a signed
copy to the lab instructor.
CARE AND USE OF MICROSCOPES
microscopes that you will be using for this course are binocular
compound scopes. You may use these at
any time, as long as you do not disrupt or interfere with other
ongoing laboratory or class sessions. Demonstration slides
be set up on some of these scopes and should remain on the work
tables in the back o f the room. You should familiarize
yourself as soon as possible with how the microscopes work.
Here are a few rules for use and care to keep in mind while you
use the scopes:
If you have never used a compound binocular
microscope before, ask the instructor to demonstrate it
before you use it. Microscope use will be demonstrated at
the start of the course, so pay close attention during this
Always carry the microscope with one
hand grasping the neck and the other supporting the base. Make
sure that the cord is securely wrapped around the base.
Never try to support a microscope by the oculars (eyepieces)
or the stage. Never carry a microscope with a slide on
When you are finished with the microscope,
put it away where you found it. Remove the slide, turn off the
light, unplug it, wrap the cord around the base, put the cover
on, place it gently in its cabinet, and close the door.
The microscope has four objectives. The
highest power objective is an oil immersion lens. This means
that it will only be in focus and provide a clear image when
there is a droplet of oil between it and the slide. In
the only time you will need to use oil immersion will be on some
demonstration slides which will be set up for you. If you feel
that you need to use oil immersion on your own with the loan
slide collections, consult with the instructor first. With oil
immersion the objective is very close to the slide, so use
extreme caution (see next point).
When viewing a slide always start at low
power. Start with the microscope focused down as
as possible, insert the slide, and bring the slide into focus by
focusing up. Use the coarse focus knob first, then the
fine focus. Never focus down on the coarse focus while
looking through the microscope. The microscope is
(more or less), which means that if the slide is in focus at low
power, it will remain approximately in focus as you switch to
higher powers. Use only the fine focus at higher powers.
Use the coarse focus only with the lowest power objective.
The reason for all of these rules will be obvious when you view
your first slide. It is quite possible to run the higher power
objectives into the slide, thereby breaking the slide (bad) or
scratching the objective (very bad).
Lens papers, lens cleaning solution, and
KimWipes will be provided at the front desk. Never use
any other materials or solutions to clean microscope lenses or
the stage control knobs for moving the slide. Don't push
directly on the slide or the stage.
If you are using a microscope that doesn't
seem to work properly, tell the instructor or leave a note on
the microscope so that it can be repaired as soon as possible.
Handle the loan collection slides with care.
Keep them in their box slots when not in use, not piled on the
table, or on your books, or in your pockets. Handle slides
over the tables, not over the floor. Make sure that the slide
box is latched before you carry it anywhere. Make sure
that the box is right side up before you open it. If
do break a slide, tell the instructor so that it can be replaced
as soon as possible.
binocular microscope is designed to be looked through
binocularly, that is with both eyes. If the two images don't
seem to line up, try adjusting the interocular distance
by sliding the two oculars at their base. The light
intensity may be adjusted by turning the rheostat knob. In
general you will want it near the maximal value. The
condenser should be adjusted (by moving it up or down) to
maximize the apparent brightness and provide uniform
illumination to the field.
adjustment of the diaphragm will depend on the lighting
effect that you want. A good general purpose setting will be
close the diaphragm just enough to get some dimming at the rim
of the field. If you want greater contrast (at the
some resolution), close the diaphragm more. This will be
especially useful when viewing thin, transparent specimens such
as blood smears, areolar C.T., etc. or specimens of varying
optical density such as bone. If you need maximal resolution and
illumination, open the diaphragm fully. This will be useful
thick, optically uniform specimens.
CARE AND USE OF BONES AND SKELETONS
are remarkably sturdy structures. Dead bones may be
surprisingly fragile. The skeletons we will be using for
this class do not have movable joints, so do not try to bend
joints on the skeleton and disarticulated limbs
carefully or not at all. For obvious reasons, never use
pencils, pens, or
markers as pointers. A good rule of thumb for handling the
skeletons and disarticulated bones, especially the skull, feet,
and hands, is to treat them as if they were irreplaceable.
CARE AND USE OF PRESERVED SPECIMENS
this course you may have the opportunity to dissect and handle
preserved animals and animal organs. These
guidelines also apply to preserved specimens.
Always wear gloves when handling animal tissue.
Avoid touching your face with the gloves. Always remove and
dispose of the gloves, then wash your hands when you are
you feel faint, first tell someone, then find a quiet
place and sit down. If you still feel faint, get someone to
help you lie down on one of the tables or help you leave the
room to get some fresh air. Don't be shy or embarrassed about
admitting that you feel badly and asking for help. In a
vein, keep an eye on those around you, and be ready to help them
if they appear to need it.
Preserved specimens must not be allowed to dry out. A
single two-hour exposure will ruin most organ preps. Whenever
you are finished examining a specimen, immediately return it to its
fluid-filled container, and seal the container.
Handle the specimens with extreme care. Do not pull on
to see behind them. Do not directly handle blood vessels or
nerves; use the probes to gently lift them or
displace them to one side. Remember that you or someone
else put quite a
bit of time into dissecting the specimen, that once you damage
something it will stay damaged, and that material will be used
on the exams whether it is damaged or not..
only probes or your fingers as pointers. Point, don't
poke. Never use pens or pencils as pointers.